How to M1l and M1R – The best knitting increases for beginners

Everything you need to know about the M1L and M1R knitting increases. They form a pair of right and left-leaning increases and are easy to knit.

So, your pattern asks you to M1R and M1L and you have no clue what it means and how to knit it? Well, then you came to the right place! In this knitting tutorial, I’m going to show you how to knit this easy knitting increase and everything you need to watch out for.

a swatch increased with make one right and make on left in the center
A swatch increased with M1R and M1L along a central knit stitch

At the very end of this post, you’ll find a very easy memory hook to tell these two very similar increases apart. Because, let’s be honest, as a beginner these can be confusing. I’ll also show you how and where to use them for the best results.

What does M1R and M1L mean in knitting?

In knitting patterns, M1R means “make one right” and M1L means “make one left”. They are both knitted in a very similar way. You pick up the yarn from a strand in between two stitches. The biggest difference lies in the way you knit that extra loop.

If you knit it through the back loop you create a left-leaning increase, and if you knit it through the front part of the loop, you create a right-leaning increase. The corresponding increase for the wrong side would be M1PL and M1PR. There’s also there simple Make One (M1) and a double increase called M2 where you perform this increase twice in the same stitch.

So, let’s show you how to do that.

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How to knit M1R & M1L

someone showing how to knit m1r and m1l with a swatch

Make One Left and Make One Right form a pair you can use to increase a project evenly on both sides. Both make use of the strand between two stitches from the previous row and are quite easy to knit.

Active Time 2 minutes
Total Time 2 minutes


M1R: We'll start with 'Make One Right' first.

  1. Pick up the strand between two stitches with the left needle coming from behind.

    Make one right with a right slanted loop picked up
  2. Insert the right needle into the lifted strand from left to right.

    inserting the needle into the front of the lifted loop from left to right

    Note: This can sometimes be a bit fiddly. So go slowly and knit very close to the tip of the needle. Sometimes it helps to loosen up the loop a bit with your right needle from the other side first before you attempt to insert.
  3. Wrap the working yarn around counter-clockwise and pull through.

    knitting the picked up strand as normal to finish m1r

    Then, drop the stitch off the left needle as normal. Essentially, you are knitting a regular knit stitch through the strand you picked up.

M1L: And here are the instructions for the corresponding 'Make on Left'.

  1. Pick up the strand between two stitches with the left needle coming from the front.

    Make on left with a left slanted stitch on the left needle
  2. Insert the right needle into the lifted strand through the back loop. So, from right to left and in the back of your work.

    inserting the needle through the back loop of the lifted strand
  3. Wrap the working yarn around the needle counter-clockwise and pull through to the front. Then, drop the stitch off the left needle.
    Knit the picked up strand through the backloop to finish make one left

    Basically, you are knitting a knit through the back loop (ktbl) into the lifted strand.


In the next row, you can knit both increases like regular stitches & according to your pattern.

You cannot perform this increase as the last stitch of any row, sincethere will be no loop to pick up. In this case, you need to resort to the KLL or KRL

What is the difference between M1l and M1R?

the difference between m1r and m1l show in a swatch

M1R creates a right-slanting increase and M1L a left-slanting increase. Hence their names. Typically, M1R is used on the right side of a central decrease line and M1L on the corresponding left side to create an even and harmonic widening of the fabric. M1R means picking up the yarn so the front part of the loop leans towards the right and then knitting it. M1L means, picking the yarn so the front part leans to the left and then knitting it through the back loop.

comparing two knitted swatches with different uses of m1l and m1r in different position
Two similar swatches increased to the left and right of a central knit stitch in every second row. The only difference is the order of the increases.

But here’s the important part: That doesn’t mean either stitch will make your fabric lean to the right or left and you can’t use it on the other side as well. In fact, if you use M1R and M1L the other way around on either side of a knit stitch, you will achieve the same triangular shape.

Instead, right-leaning just means that the single increase stitch will look like it leans to the right. Obviously, this will look best if the rest of the fabric leans in that direction as well.

Consider that if you use the same increase in the same position in every second row, then the increases will form a line. For example, you start every right-side row with: knit 4, M1L,… and end the row with …., M1R, knit 4. And this line will look different depending on which stitch you pick.

close-up of a knitted swatch increased with m1r and m1l on the left and the right side
A swatch increased with M1L four stitches removed from the right side and M1R four stitches removed from the left side.

If you take a very close look at the swatch below, you will notice the differences are quite minuscule. However, you will notice that a M1R will create a harmonic ridge when used on the left side and no ridge on the right side. For the M1L the opposite is true. Typically, this decrease line is the desired effect for most knitting patterns.

A swatch to show the difference between m1r and m1l
The same increases (and decreases) were knitted on either side of the row in this swatch.

So, it is important to realize that, depending on the position in your fabric you want to place an increase (meaning center or on the edges) a different stitch might be preferred.

Things to consider when using these Increases

There’s one more thing I would like to mention here. Both M1R and M1L make use of a strand from a row below, a bit like a lifted increase. So, as you knit the increase, you steal a little length of yarn from the two adjacent stitches. As a result, the fabric will lose a bit of horizontal stretchiness.

If you are knitting a project with a loose gauge and only one or two increases per row, this effect is utterly neglectable. But suppose you have a pattern where you knit a Make One Right between every third stitch or so. Then it could noticeably shape the fabric. This doesn’t necessarily have to be bad. I just want you to be aware of the effect these increases can have.

To avoid this effect, you’d have to knit a KFB or a backward loop increase instead.

How to remember which way to knit an M1R and an M1L?

I know, it can be hard to memorize which way to pick up the yarn. It’s also easy to mix up whether you should knit it or knit it through the back loop, etc. But here are some tips that helped me a lot:

someone showing a super reasy memory hook for m1l and m1r with a swatch
Left: Make one right | Right: Make one left
  • M1R: If you want a right-leaning increase, you need to Make One Right. This means you need to pick up the yarn in a way so the front part of the lifted loop leans to the right. And then you always knit the loop through the part that is closest to the next stitch – so the front part, in this case.
  • M1L: If you want a left-slanting increase, you need to make one left. This means you pick up the yarn so the loop ends up leaning to the left. And knit it through the part that is closest to the next stitch – so through the back loop.
Top view of a M1R stitch
A M1R loop seen from above.

You could also say: For a M1R you need to pick up the yarn so it wraps around your needle doing a right turn, and a left turn for M1L. And as you don’t want to create an eyelet/hole with this increase, you always knit the stitch twisted!

Aha? So how does this help you?


A standard knit stitch always has the front loop leaning to the left.

So, for a M1L, you have a loop that leans to the left. So, the loop looks like a knit stitch. If you knit this loop with a standard knit stitch, you’d create a hole. Instead, you need to knit it twisted.

And for the M1R, the loop leans to the right. So, it’s already twisted. This means, if you knit it the standard way, you end up with a twisted stitch already.

M1PR and M1PL – increasing on the purl side

Sometimes, you need to increase on the purl side. Then you have to adapt this increase accordingly. Most knitters will shy away from it. And it has to be said that increases will look much neater if you space them out across knit rows (which means you only increase every two rows!).

But, of course, sometimes there’s no way around it or you want to increase only on the wrong side. So, here’s how to knit that

M1PL (Make one pUrl Left):

Step 1: Insert the left needle into the strand between two stitches coming from the front.

Make one purl left with a left slanted loop picked up from below

Step 2: Purl through the back loop.

Make one purl left mean purling the stitch through the back loop

M1PR (make one purl right):

Step 1: Insert the left needle into the rib between two stitches coming from the back.

A purl one right stitch

Step 2: Purl through the front loop (so a regular purl stitch).

Make one purl right means purl through the front loop

Important note:You have to be able to think laterally a bit here, as obviously a left-slanting stitch will appear right-slanting on the right side.

So, that’s how you knit m1r and m1l. Let me know how it went in the comments below, eh?

How to knit the M1R and M1L knitting increase

23 thoughts on “How to M1l and M1R – The best knitting increases for beginners”

  1. So helpful! I am an accomplished knitter but ran into a pattern that offset SSK and K2tog with YO’s. The latter left unwanted holes so I thought to use M1’s instead. Further confound was that the pattern is knit in reverse stockinette stitch (P side as the RS). I wasn’t clear on M1PL vs M1PR and voila! I found your tutorial with written out instructions. Thank you.

  2. Thanks. I needed this. Clear and concise instructions for all four increases in one tutorial – great. Now I just need to finish the cowl that calls for them. Never done M1 Purl increases before and this is a good guide for the beginner. Glad for your help.

  3. Hi Norman,
    I wonder if you can help me? I am knitting a glove on dpn’s, (my first set) it has a thumb gusset. As I finished the ribbing for the wrist I am making increases every second round, but the pattern only says m1,k3,m1 … and so on. I managed to get the left glove done just fine, but now I’m onto the right glove I can’t figure out which side to make first? I’ve only done 6 rows so far so only 3 mk1 rounds, and I can’t see a pattern forming. Does that make any sense?

    • Hey Angeline,
      I’m sorry, but I do not comment on other designers’ patterns. i don’t feel that’s my place. Typically you have to mirror increases on the other glove.

  4. How do you know which way you want the increase to lead? Does M1R increase right as you’re looking down at the knitting or if you look at your knitting from the front?

    Stage left & right or audience left & right (so to speak)?

    • I don’t quite understand that quesiton. I mean, if you scroll down there is a whole section about the lean/slant of these increases. What else do you need to know?

  5. I am always a little confused when knitting the raglan line in top-down sweaters. On the increase row I tend to knit left front, M1L, knit sleeve, M1R, knit back, M1L, knit sleeve M1R, knit right front. I’d welcome hearing your thoughts specific to raglan lines.

    • I am not entirely sure what your question is? My thoughts on raglan lines is that you knit bottom-up but I am not sure that is what you want to hear. haha.

  6. Thank you for this detailed “dissection” of M1, Norman. Before this I didn’t even know we can m1 purlwise as well. Very insightful, keep up the good work!

  7. Hello Norman,
    Thank you very much for this wonderfully detailed and thorough demonstration/tutorial. I am working on my first project with M1R & M1L increases, and quite frankly have found it to be rather overwhelming whilst searching for a clear explanation of how to execute these stitches. I have pulled my project back to the start twice, after thinking I finally understood the method, but then making mistakes. After reading your tutorial (and bookmarking it) I feel confident to have another try. Best wishes from Australia 🇦🇺😊

  8. Hi Norman,
    Thank you for the tutorial it was really helpful.
    Could you help with holes appearing when doing M1L – I am using 12mm needles on a raglan cardigan. I’ve ripped it back 4 times now and don’t know why this is happening?

  9. Hi Norman, I am trying to knit something with increases on every row (only a couple per row). I don’t want it to be invisible (but don’t want it to be as visible as yarn overs). Some part of it will be knit flat, and the rest will be knit in the round. Do you think these are many best options? I did see your page with all the increases and looked at your swatch pictures. Just looking for your opinion as to what will look best in the middle of a row.

    Another question – if I do M1L,, should the corresponding stitch on the wrong side be M1PR? I can’t quite see which way they are leaning

    Thanks a lot!

    • If you click on the menu and then on “stitches” you’ll come to an overview with close-pictures (and linked tutorials) of all increases. pick the one you feel looks best for you

  10. Norman. Thank you so much for all your tutorials. They are all so clear and concise. I like to know different ways of casting on and off, increasing and decreasing to get the right application for whatever I’m working on at the time.

  11. I’m having trouble with my pattern .I’ve got 81 stitches & pattern says k4 (k2,m1) 18times, k1,m1 (k2, m1) 17 times k6
    Do I k2 m1 18 times or just make 18 stitches. I’m doing an All-in-one baby too

    • The stitches of your row have no influence on how you m1p. You just lift the strand between two stitches back to your knitting needle and purl it.

  12. I’m unfortunately having to unknit a few rows in my project. When I get to the M1R and M1L stitches, do I just drop them?


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