How to knit for beginners

A step-by-step tutorial on how to start knitting the easy continental way. All the basic techniques beginners need to learn for their first project.

So, how do you knit? Are you wondering about the basics for beginners you absolutely need to learn? Or do you want to make the switch to continental knitting? Well, then you came to the right place because with this step-by-step tutorial, I created a comprehensive resource I wish I had when I started learning how to knit – high-resolution pictures and videos included.

Knitting a simple swatch as a beginner using only the most basic techniques you learn in this how to knit tutorial

I’ve been knitting for well over 30 years now, I have been designing my own patterns for just as long, and I firmly believe that knitting is a super easy craft to learn – if taught the right way. Sadly, a lot of the tutorials and books I’ve come across in the past years often focus on seemingly easy shortcuts.

Instead, I’ll be showing you basic knitting techniques that are just as easy but much more ergonomic and versatile. Techniques that will be able to last you a lifetime and will allow you to knit faster and with less strain on your joints. In this tutorial, you will learn:

1. Cast on2. Knit stitch4. Bind off
A simple technique to start the knitting process.The basic stitch that turns your yarn into fabric.Finish your knitting and keep it from unraveling.
→ Jump to the cast-on instructions → Jump to the knit stitch instructions → Jump to the bind-off instructions

Along the way, I will also show you how to add a new ball, how to fix mistakes, and how to weave in the ends once you’ve finished knitting.

Reading tips before you start

Anyway, let’s dive right into it and show you how to knit the easy way.

Note: I tried to explain knitting using simple words and no lingo. But if you still run across a term or acronym you don’t understand, I have a knitting glossary here on my blog as well.

1. How to cast on

Before you can actually start knitting, you need to create a row of simple loops around your needles as a base. This process is called cast-on or casting on. Think of it as a stable fundament, much like when you build a house.

In knitting, there are probably 50 different ways to cast on. As a beginner, I urge you to stick to the longtail cast-on. Why? Because it’s very versatile, quite stretchy, and quite easy once you get the hang of it. Some older books will show you the single cast-on as your first technique instead. While definitely easier at first, it creates a very solid edge that you will have a very hard time knitting across in the next row.

Step 1: Wrap the yarn around your pinky finger two times clockwise. The ball should be on your left and a sizeable tail that is around 4 times as long as your final project will be wide. E.g. if you want a scarf that is 10 inches wide, then leave a tail of 40 inches.

wrapping the yarn around the pinky finger two times to start knitting

Step 2: Bring the yarn across the back of your hands.

brining the yarn across the back of the hand

Step 3: Flip your hand over and wrap the yarn around your thumb clockwise once.

wrappng the yarn around the thumb once clockwise

Step 4: Secure the tail between your ring and pinky finger.

securing the tail between the ring and pinky finger as a preparation

Step 5: Pick up one knitting needle (or hold two needles together for a stretchier edge) with your right hand, and insert them into the loop around your thumb coming from below.

inserting the knitting needle into the loop around the thumb coming from below to start knitting

Step 6: Grab the yarn towards your index finger coming from behind.

grabbing the yarn towards the index finger comming from behind

Step 7: Pull the yarn through the loop around your thumb.

pulling the yarn through the loop around the thumb

Step 8: Remove your thumb from the loop.

removing the thumb from the loop

Step 9: Pull tight by spreading your thumb and index finger from inside.

tightening up the first cast on stitch by pullin the yarn in either direction with thumb and index finger

Step 10: Pull the right needle towards you to create a “slingshot”.

creating a sling shot by pulling the needle with the slip knot towards the body

Step 11: Repeat steps 5-10 until you cast on the required number of stitches. (So insert the needle into the loop around the thumb, grab the yarn towards the index finger, pull through, remove the thumb, and tighten up.)

continuing casting on stitches with the longtail cast on method

Try to keep those stitches as even and uniform as possible. So, tighten up slowly and make sure they sit right next to each other without big gaps.

stitches on the knitting needle creates by a long tail cast on - the easiest way to start knitting

Hint: For my little practice piece, I’ve cast on 20 stitches. I am using 5.00 mm needles and a DK cotton yarn. But depending on your yarn weight you may want to cast on more or fewer stitches. Check the yarn label. It should tell you which needle size works best for that particular quality. And here’s a handy little guide that will help you calculate yarn requirements for the longtail cast-on.

2. How to knit the knit stitch

Once you’ve cast on the required number of stitches, it’s time to show you how to knit. If you mastered the cast-on, this will be actually not a lot more difficult.

Step 1: Turn your knitting needle around. The little tail should hang down on the right side.

turning the needle around to start knitting - the tails hang down on the right side

Step 2: Wrap the working yarn, the yarn connected to the ball, around the pinky finger of your left hand two times (or only once if you notice that the yarn cannot flow freely).

starting to knit by wrapping the yarn around the pinky finger two times

Step 3: Bring the yarn across the back of your hand again.

bringing yarn across the back of the hand to tension the yarn in preparation for the knit stitch

Step 4: Pick up the knitting needle with your cast-on stitches a bit like you would hold a knife. The yarn connected to your index finger should be nice and taut without slack. If there is, pick up the yarn again more closely or pull on the other end to tighten it up a bit.

picking up the needle with the left hand a bit like a knife

Note: The working yarn needs to be in the bottom back of the needle. So, make extra sure that it looks exactly as in the picture and that you didn’t accidentally loop it around coming from the front.

close-up shot of how the yarn needs to be held in the back
Close-up shot of how the yarn should be held.

Step 5: Pick up the second needle with your right hand – again a bit like you would hold a knife.

someone holding two knitting needles to demonstrate how to hold them in the left and right hand to start knitting - both a bit like a knife

Step 6: Insert the right needle (your working needle) into the first stitch/loop on the left needle from left to right. You may need to slide the stitches a bit further to the tip of the needle first.

inserting the right needle into the first stitch on the left needle from left to right

Step 7: Next, wrap the yarn around the needle counter-clockwise by coming in from behind with your knitting needle.

wrapping the yarn around the needle counter-clockwise by coming in from behind

Tip: Think of it like the knitting needle as the center of a clock. And when you look at it from above, the yarn needs to go around counter-clockwise.

Step 8: Pull the yarn through the first loop. You may use your left index finger as a guide.

pulling the yarn through the first loop on your needle for the knit stitch

Note: A knitting needle has no hook at the end. So it’s important to change the angle of your right knitting needle to a more horizontal position before you try to pull the yarn through. You can scrape the tip of your right needle against the left needle a bit to keep the yarn from slipping past.

Step 9: Drop the first loop, the one you’ve just worked through, off the left needle. Tighten the resulting knit stitch on your right needle by pulling on the working yarn. And that’s already it. You created your first knit stitch.

dropping the stitch off the needles to finish the basic knit stitch

Step 10: Repeat steps 6-9 until you’ve used up all stitches on your left needle. Make sure that the working yarn always stays in the back of the needle.

continuing repeating these steps to knit the knit stitch

It’s always the same motion: Insert from left to right, grab the yarn from behind, pull through, drop the loop, and tighten up.

How to start the second row

one row of finished knit stitches on the needles
How things should look like after you’ve finished knitting the full first row

All the stitches on one needle are called a row or a row of stitches. Once you’ve finished the first row, it’s time to turn your work around and start the second row. But you may have noticed that knitting is done from right to left but your yarn is still at the end of the row.

continuing knitting across the second row the same way using the knit stitch
Knitting across the second row exactly in the same manner as you finished the first

Well, just spin the needle around clockwise and the yarn is right where you need it. Make sure that your working yarn is still tensioned correctly and double-check whether the working yarn is in the back and you didn’t accidentally create a loop or pull the first stitch around.

showing how the yarn should not look after you turned around. Many beginners learning how to knit accidently pull the yarn around the wrong way.
This is not how your first stitch should look like.

And then continue knitting the knit stitch into every single loop of that row. And every time you reach the end of a new row, turn your work around again. This will produce a fabric called Garter Stitch.

the right side of a knitted swatch in garter stitch - the pattern you should start to learn knitting
How your project should look after 10 rows. This is the right side with the cast-on tail hanging down on the right edge.

Every fabric has two sides. When you are knitting fat, you are knitting across the right side and then the wrong side. The row where you start is typically the right side, and the next row (or all even number rows) are the return rows or the wrong side.

Note: If you want to know how many rows you have knitted, here’s how to count rows for garter stitch.

How to join a new ball

changing colors in knitting the easy way

At one point or another, you may run out of yarn. So what do you do then? Well, you have to join in a new ball and it’s actually remarkably easy. Here’s how to do that.

Step 1: Finish knitting one row. There should still be a short tail of around 5 inches left. You’ll need that later on for weaving in.

preparing to add a new ball after having finished on row on the wrong side
The working yarn and the tail should be on the right side of your project.

Step 2: Tie a simple knot around the tail of the old yarn using the new yarn. Again, leave a little tail of around 5 inches.

tying a knot around the new with the new yarn to ada new ball

Step 3: Slide the knot all the way to the base of the first stitch.

sliding the knit to the base of the last stitch in the old yarn

Step 4: Pick up the new yarn/color and continue knitting as before.

continuing knitting with the new yarn in a new color after having joined it

Here’s a more detailed tutorial on how to change yarn and colors in knitting with further options for later projects.

How to fix mistakes

fixing a dropped stitch in garter stitch with a crochet hook several rows down
Fixing a dropped stitch using a crochet hook

But what happens if you make a mistake? Those stitches are slippery after all, and sometimes you may drop one and things unravel. What then? Do you have to start all over again? No, of course not.

You can easily fix mistakes using a crochet hook. I have a full tutorial that shows you how to fix mistakes in garter stitch. It’s actually remarkably easy.

How to count rows

counting rows in garter stitch the right way

At some point, you might want to know how many rows you’ve just knitted. This is quite easy. For garter stitch, you simply have to count the ridges. Each ridge stands for two rows. Each ridge is formed by two little bumps – one looking a bit like a cup and the other a bit like a dome. Simply count these.

Here’s a more detailed post on counting rows in knitting

3. How to bind off

Now, how do you finish your knitting? I showed you how to knit, but you can’t just pull out your knitting needles. If you’d do that, all your hard work would unravel! That’s why you need to secure the stitches on our needle. This process is called bind-off or cast-off (both terms mean the exact same thing) and here’s how to do that.

Step 1: Knit two stitches as normal.

knitting two stitches to start the bind off

Step 2: Insert your left needle into the second stitch on your right needle from left to right.

entering the left needle into the second stitch on the right needle from left to right

Step 3: Lift that second stitch over the first one.

lifting the second stitch on the right needle over the first one

Step 4: And drop it off the needle. The first stitch stays on the right needle.

dropping the lifted stitch off the needles

Step 5: Knit one more stitch.

knitting one more stitch to continue binding off

Step 6: Lift the new second stitch over the first one and drop it off the needles.

lifting the new second stitch over the first to bind off

Step 7: Repeat steps 5-6 until there is only one stitch remaining.

one last stitch left on the knitting needle after having bound off the whole row

Step 8: Break the yarn, and pull out the last stitch using your knitting needle.

pulling out the last stitch with the knitting needle after breaking the yarn

Step 9: Pull on the tail to tighten up.

tightening up the last stitch to finish knitting

Tip: Here’s a tutorial that shows you how you can create a much neater last bind-off stitch.

5. How to weave in ends

the result: a totally invisible way to weave in tails for garter stitch
Can you spot where I wove in the ends? This method is as invisible as it gets.

There’s one last little technique you should learn right away when you start learning how to knit. Why? Well, there are at least two tails still hanging down from your project. One from the cast-on and one from the bind-off. And you can’t just cut them away. If you’d do that your work would unravel.

Instead, you need to weave in tails. While I have a full tutorial on weaving in ends with 10 essential techniques, here’s the most basic method you can use for garter stitch.

Step 1: Thread the tail on a sharp tapestry needle.

threading tail on tapestry needle to weave in the ends of a knitted swatch

Step 2: Push apart two of the ribs, and go right through the legs of the knit stitches in between. Pierce right through the yarn and follow the course of that little “valley” for around 6 – 8 stitches.

weaving in ends for garter stitch with a tapestry needle the invisible way

Step 3: Pull the tail all the way through, stretch out your knitting, and cut the tail.

cutting away the ends with a scissor to finish knitting

Congratulations! You learned how to knit. So, what’s next?

Well, first of all, I want you to pat yourself on the back. Be proud of your achievement. Even if your first little swatch looks a bit wonky still, don’t fret over it. Instead, I want you to take it and put it into your personal treasure box as a reminder of that day when you mastered this incredible hobby.

Other than that, there are of course tons of things still to learn. So, first of all, don’t forget to check out my free knitting school. And maybe even subscribe to my newsletter so we can stay in touch and I can send over some free patterns.

Also know that you can already start some exciting little projects with your new-found skills:

I really urge you to practice the 3 basic knitting techniques I showed you in this tutorial: cast-on, knit stitch, and bind-off.

Your mind and your muscles need time to get familiar with the new motions. Once you’ve knitted a couple of thousand stitches, you will be able to perform them on a subconscious level. You won’t need to worry about every little micro-movement of your fingers anymore. But this process will take time.

In the beginning, knitting might feel like juggling raw eggs. There are so many things you need to handle at the same time. But with a bit of practice, you will be able to do it without thinking. In fact, advanced knitters (like me) can knit without even looking at their needles.

And once you feel reasonably proficient, you can move on to the next couple of techniques. The purl stitch, the second basic knitting stitch, will open up a whole new world. With it, you will be able to access most of the traditional knitting stitch patterns.

And from there, it’s only a short stretch until you can learn how to knit socks, hats, or even sweaters. But remember, go slowly, take breaks, and never over-challenge yourself. Oh…and you might want to check out my tutorial on how to read knitting patterns. It’s not particularly hard (don’t be afraid!) but there are a couple of things you should be aware of.

Reading tip: Knitting vs crochet – which is easier?

Note: I earn a small commission for purchases made through links in this article.

How to knit for beginners - step-by-step

How to knit for beginners - step-by-step

Everything you need to know to start knitting the continental way. All the basic techniques in one easy tutorial for beginners.

Active Time 30 minutes
Total Time 30 minutes


  1. Cast on 20 stitches using the longtail cast on.

    stitches on the knitting needle creates by a long tail cast on - the easiest way to start knitting

    Step 1: To do this, wrap the yarn around your pinky finger two times clockwise.
    Step 2: Bring the yarn across the back of your hands.
    Step 3: Wrap the yarn around your thumb once clockwise.
    Step 4: Insert the needle into the loop around your thumb from below.
    Step 5: Grab the yarn towards the index finger from behind.
    Step 6: Pull the yarn through the loop around your thumb.
    Step 7: Remove the thumb from your loop.
    Step 8: Tighten up by spreading thumb and index finger.
    Step 9: Pull stitches towards you to create a slingshot.

    Repeat steps 4-9 to cast on the required number of stitches.
  2. Knit the knit stitch.

    someone showing how to knit

    Step 1: Turn your knitting needle around clockwise and tension the yarn the same way you did for the cast on. Make sure the yarn is in the back of your needles.
    Step 2: Insert the second needle (using your right hand) into the first loop on the left needle from left to right.
    Step 3: Wrap the yarn around the needle counter-clockwise.
    Step 4: Pull the yarn through the loop.
    Step 5: Drop the first loop of the left needle.
    Step 6: Repeat steps 2-5 until you knit across every single cast-on loop and there are no stitches left.
    Step 7: Turn the needle around clockwise so the working yarn ends up on the right side. Again, make sure the yarn is in back.
    Step 9: Continue knitting the knit stitch into every single loop of the second row.

    Turn around after you finished each row and continue knitting. This will produce a fabric called garter stitch.
  3. Finish your knitting by binding off all stitches.

    bining off all stitches to finish this knitted swatch

    Step 1: Knit two stitches.
    Step 2: Pass the second stitch over the first using your left needle.
    Step 3: Drop the lifted stitch off the needles (the first stitch needs to stay put).
    Step 4: Knit another stitch.
    Step 5: Lift the new second stitch over the new first stitch, and drop it off the needles as well.
    Step 6: Repeat steps 4+5 until there is only one stitch left.
    Step 7: Break the yarn, and pull out the last stitch. Tighten up the resulting knot with your fingers.
  4. Weave in the ends with a tapestry needle.

    weaving in ends for garter stitch with a tapestry needle the invisible way

    Step 1: Thread tail on a sharp tapestry needle.
    Step 2: Pull the needle through the legs of the stitches between two ridges. Cover around 8-10 stitches in that manner.
    Step 3: Stretch out your knitting and cut away the excess yarn.

Anyway, that’s how to knit. I really hope you were able to follow along. Please, comment below in case you still have any questions

how to knit for beginners the continental way - a step by step tutorial going slowly

27 thoughts on “How to knit for beginners”

  1. Thank you for your instructions they are very useful.
    I am trying to make a knitted doll for baby.
    The pattern calls for double knitting and I am enjoying making it, however my edges are ugly and bulky.
    Do you have a tutorial to make the edges neat when double knitting?
    thank you

    • No, i have a tutorial on double-knitting where I talk about edges, and I have a tutorial on neat edges, tho. Just use the search function in the menu and enter your search term.

  2. I used to think that knitting is a tedious job, but i think it isn’t so in fact very interesting & simple! Thanks for this informative Blog 🙂

  3. Dear Norman!
    The very first thing that i would like to find out. I learned to knit at school age 6 and now I am 62. I have seen that some people use different techniques for the very basic “knit” or “purl”. And there are names given to those techniques, like “continental” etc. I am from Belgium so, continental. We learned to “throw” the yarn over the right hand needle. The left hand only holds the needle and pushes the stitches up to the needle point as one knits along.
    I mention this because no matter how you knit, the working yarn might be over or under the needle, mightn’t it, which could be a bit confusing whilst applying techniques such as M1PR etc etc.
    In short, what is the knitting technique that you use, called?
    Many thanks. Happy New Year

    • I’m from Belgium too Marieke, but when I learned to knit (it was about 1970 I guess), I learned to knit the English way like most kids in Flanders.
      And that’s exactly like you describe: throwing the yarn around the needle while holding it in your right hand, not picking it up while holding it in the left…

  4. Your instructions say to wrap the yard counterclockwise around the needle when making the knit stitch. I’ve realized that I’m doing the opposite, wrapping the yarn clockwise with the knit stitch. How does the direction of wrapping the yarn affect the finished knitting fabric? Thank you!

    • it changes uh…everything and I wouldn’t do it. There’s combination knitting, but even there you only do this for purl stitches.

  5. Thank you for this video and the instructions! I had tried to learn to knit as a child from my mother and it just never clicked – she had tried to teach English method, me as a left-hander and her right-handed, and it just didn’t make sense to me. (She was able to teach my sons how to knit when they were younger, and they still knit as adults) Your tutorials make perfect sense, within a few hours I felt accomplished -at 56 years old I finally learned to knit. Within a few days, I even ventured into your cable and sock tutorials. More importantly, now my sons and I can share knitting as a family.

  6. Hello Norman!
    I’m currently knitting a top down sweater and am ready to begin the sleeve section. I counted the stitches and am short by one stitch! Would it be OK to continue until I reach the bottom ribbing then add one stitch perhaps at the side?? Any other suggestions? Thank you so much!

    • Impossible for me to say, really without seeing the pattern (besides, i never comment on other designers’ patterns). What you can always do is, sneak in one increase two rows before you start or so. A KLL will be very invisible. But I would also make extra sure that you didn’t accidentally drop a stitch somewhere that might unravel later on.

  7. I’m learning to knit using YouTube. There are so many good teachers out there, but not many use continental style. I have crocheted for many years, and I think that’s why I prefer holding the working yarn in my left hand. Also I find my tension is better and my edges are neater. Watching your videos has helped me figure out good techniques for improving with continental style. I paid very close attention to the purl section of this video today because, as you mentioned it’s more difficult to purl this way than it is to knit.

    I’ve wanted to learn knitting for many years, and I’m finding your videos very helpful. I love that you affirm that no one way is better (or even faster) than any other way. Each way exists because it was a better way for some one.

    I’m really enjoying your YouTube channel and your blog. And I love the name Norman!

  8. Hi Norman, I’m really enjoying your knitting tutorials. I learned to knit 15 or so years ago, then put it down for a bit and would like to pick it back up again. I learned the English style initially but find the continental style to be more seamless in motion from watching your videos

    My question is: as someone who is left handed do I need to make any adjustments?

    • Not really, I mean other than mirroring everything. I do know some left-handers who knit continental the regular way simply because you end up using both hands anyway.

  9. Hi Norman I discovered your knitting YouTube channel yesterday because I want to teach some ladies to knit continental style. So I’m keeping your videos close by for guidance!
    I have a question for you. I’m knitting a sweater for my granddaughter and I found a yarn in my stash that I’d like to incorporate into the other yarns, which are all the same brand and weight. How can I tell if this new yarn (which has no label) will knit up with the same weight at the pattern yarn?

    • by knitting a small little swatch. Cast on 20 or so stitches, knit 10 rows in the old yarna nd then another 10 rows with the new yarn. Wash and block and check if you like the result or not.

  10. Hi Norman,
    I’d love to sign up for your knitting school. Somehow I can’t find it agsin on your site. Please forward.
    Kind Regards,

  11. Thank you so much for providing such clear, detailed instructions along with pictures! My Mom and I are both wanting to subscribe to your newsletter, however, we cannot find the “subscribe pattern” button to click on the newsletter page. Any assistance you can provide would be greatly appreciated. Thank you for your help!

  12. I am 53, no experience at all! I have always wanted to learn to knit but it just seemed overwhelming. I’m so happy to have found your page! I just ordered some beginner items listed on your site and look forward to following your tutorials. I just wanted to thank you for so much great information especially for beginners.

  13. Hi Norman, thank you for such great knitting resources! My mom taught me how to knit like twenty years ago and I have knitted several scarves. I recently picked it back up and I had to refresh my skills a bit, and I have realized that maybe I am knitting incorrectly? Or are there multiple ways to do it? When you knit, you show to put the working needle through the front of the stitch from left to right. I was taught to put the working needle through the back of the stitch, so I guess from right to left. My knitted work looks the same as yours though. I tried doing it both ways and I can’t tell the difference. Does it matter? Am I doing it wrong? Please advise! Thank you so much!

    • it sounds like you learned something called combination knitting. But difficult to tell. BUt yeah, there are different styles of knitting.

  14. Hello Norman,
    I’m having so much fun with your knitting lessons. I would like to take up knitting again.
    Can you teach different designs also??


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