A step-by-step tutorial showing you everything you need to know about German Short Row knitting.
Your pattern tells you to make a double stitch and you have no clue how to knit it? Maybe you need to do a German Short Row heel or maybe it’s a beautiful shawl in many different colors. I grew up in Bavaria and might be partial but I honestly believe German short rows are super easy and sound more complicated than they really are.
I hope, in this quick little tutorial I can convince you of the same. At their core, short rows mean nothing else but not finishing your whole row. Instead, you turn around in the middle of the row using a special technique. This can be used to insert blobs of color in the center of your knitting or, when repeated often enough, add extra fabric to accommodate various complex 3-dimensional shapes (like heels when you knit socks toe-up).
In knitting patterns, you often read “make double”, or “make double stitch”, or just “mds”. And whenever you read that and there is no specific technique mentioned, you can use German Short Rows.
Let’s dive right into it!
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- Knit up to the point where you want to place your first double stitch.
- Turn your work around as normal and bring the yarn to the front.
- Slip the stitch back to the right needle purlwise.
- Pull at the working yarn. Pull it down until you've created what looks like a double stitch.
- Continue purling across the rest of the row as normal.
- Continue knitting across as normal until you come to the double stitch in the next right side row.
- Turn around and slip the stitch purlwise with yarn in front as before.
- Pull at the working yarn to create another double stitch.
- Repeat steps 5-7 as many times as desired, then stop knitting right in front of a double stitch.
- This time, continue knitting across the right side of your work without turning around anymore but knit all double stitch together (k2tog). Always knit the two little legs you pulled down together. At the end of the row, you should end up with the same number of stitches you started with.
- Continue knitting according to your pattern.
Please bear in mind that short rows add extra fabric. Your fabric will not lay perfectly flat anymore (unless you counterbalance it with more short rows on the other side, etc). If you just want to use short rows to insert specks of color, intarsia might often be the neater solution (albeit a bit more complicated).
German Short rows on the knit side / purl double stitches
You can also create double stitches purlwise. It’s the exact same process: You slip purlwise with yarn in front and then pull down. This technique will be used when you have to create double stitches on both sides of a project.
Step 1: Turn your work around with yarn in front.
Step 2: Slip the next knit stitch purlwise with yarn in front.
Step 3: Pull on the working yarn to create a double stitch and continue knitting.
Step 4: Later on, you purl all double stitches together to finish the short rows – except you work on a project in the round. Then you will have to knit them together as well.
Twisted double stitches
Maybe you are like me and you want everything to be as perfect as possible. If you take a close look at your double stitches, then you may notice that the ones you created on the knitside (so where you pulled down when the right side was facing you), appear to be twisted.
You may also notice that your heel has quite big holes on the other side even though everything appeared to look neat at first. In these cases, you may opt to knit your German short rows twisted. Here’s how:
Step 1: Turn your work around as before with yarn in front.
Step 2: Slip the stitch knitwise.
Step 3: Pull on the working yarn (in front) to create a double stitch.
Step 4: When it’s time to knit across, you knit all double stitches together through the back loop.
In a similar way, you could also create twisted purl double stitches if you face problems on the other side. So the only difference is that you slip knitwise instead of purlwise and knit or purl them together through backloop later on.
If you take a close look at the swatch above, you can see the differences. If you employ the standard technique, your stitches will appear to be twisted on the right side. If you use the twisted technique, your double stitches will be twisted on the left side.
Now, there is no right or wrong here but if you want to create a truly balanced fabric, then you would have to slip purlwise whenever you create a double stitch on the purl side and slip knitwise whenever you create a double stitch on the knit side of your project.
But it gets trickier yet! Depending on the use case, you may do it exactly the other way around. Why? Well, any sort of short row technique shapes the fabric, meaning you kind of turn it around in that spot. And if you space your double stitches adjacent to each other, this effect will be very pronounced.
You typically use this effect to turn your heels. Now, this will have a very interesting result: If you follow the logic above, you would need to slip all stitches purlwise on the left side of your heel to create balanced stitches with neat and nice little Vs. But because the heel turn in the other direction, a twisted double stitch (so slipped knitwise) will often look neater.
Essentially I am saying, knit a swatch before you start your project and check which combination you like most! Sounds bothersome but you will only have to do it once and your projects may end up looking so much neater!