Everything you need to know to make your ribbing neater and some important theory to improve your tension when knitting knit-purl combinations
Are you fighting a constant uphill battle against your ribbings? No matter what you try, they always look a bit wonky? Or is there a loose column of knit stitches you just can’t get rid of? Well, then look no further because this tutorial is all about how you can make your rib stitch neater.
You know, they say a 1×1 rib stitch or a 2×2 rib stitch, is a wonderful place to start when you are a beginner. But it’s my honest opinion that they are actually among the most difficult knitting stitch patterns of them all.
Sure, as long as you cast on an even number of stitches, it’s a simple 2-row repeat with only knits and purls. Easy to remember, easy to knit. But if you don’t pay attention, your stitch definition won’t look at all as on the pictures. In fact, I don’t think there is a single topic I receive more questions about than messy ribbings and how to fix them.
So, let’s show you the reason why this is happening and then some hands-on techniques for instant results.
Reading tip: Free Ribbed hat pattern for beginners & how to knit the tubular cast-on for an invisible edge for a 1×1 rib stitch
Why is your rib stitch messy or a bit wonky?
The reason is quite simple: Your knitting is flat but the stitches on your needles are twisted and sit on the needles at a 45-90° angle. And as a result, the distance between a knit stitch, followed by a purl stitch is quite a lot longer than between your average knit stitches.
Huh? Have I lost you already? Let’s dive in a little deeper so you can truly understand what this means! And I promise you, once you figure it out, you will be able to take your knitting to a whole new level.
If you take a close look at the picture below, you can see a little strand between two purl stitches and two knit stitches. It’s nice and crisp and not very long. So, when you are knitting stockinette stitch, or garter stitch the problem does not occur (assuming you have an even tension) as you only knit one kind of stitch per row. So, the little strand between two stitches is always the same length in these patterns.
Now, if you were to look at a flat project in a 2×2 rib stitch, you might be inclined to say that in normal knitting, the spacing between any given two stitches is the same. And I would agree, that more or less appears to be the case. However…
…when your stitches are still on the needle, meaning when you are knitting, they don’t lay flat. They are sitting on the needle twisted. So, if you look at the picture below, you can see what happens to the little strand between a knit stitch, followed by a purl stitch when you twist it.
As the yarn needs to exist a knit stitch from behind but has to enter the purl stitch from the front, the strand between a knit stitch followed by a purl stitch will describe an S-line. And the length of that bit of yarn will be defined by the diameter of your knitting needles.
So, upon closer examination, the reason why your ribbings may look a bit messy has to do with the fact that the yarn has to travel quite a lot longer when you transition from a knit to a purl stitch. And the result will be loose stitches. But it gets even more problematic.
When it comes to the distance between a purl stitch followed by a knit stitch, the opposite is true. The average slack you create between that combination is the shortest of all stitches as the yarn can exit the purl stitch through the front and enter the knit stitch right through the back.
To put things together. The repeat for a 2×2 rib stitch is: knit, knit, purl, purl, knit, knit, purl, purl…
I highlighted the problematic combinations. Essentially this means, you always create a pair with an with an extra-long connection followed by a pair with a super short connection. And the result will be a double column of knit stitches where one appears to be tight and the other super loose.
How to knit neater rib stitches – 6 tips
With this essential knowledge, which you can apply to any other knit-purl combination as well (so maybe a moss stitch), it’s possible to fix your ribbings. All you have to do is reduce the extra slack you create between a knit stitch followed by a purl stitch. Let’s show you some options.
1. Pull tight after every first purl stitch
The probably most obvious solution is working on your tension. So, whenever you knit a purl stitch after a knit stitch, simply give your working yarn a good tug to close the slack between the two stitches as much as possible. But only that one stitch!
You can knit all other stitches with your normal tension. So the repeat for a 2×2 rib would be:
- Step 1: Knit one stitch
- Step 2: Knit another stitch
- Step 3: Bring the yarn to the front
- Step 4: Purl one stitch but keep it on the needles
- Step 5: Pull on the working yarn to take away as much of the slack as possible & then drop the stitch
- Step 6: Purl one stitch as normal
Now, as I showed you above, the length of that strand will be defined by your needle size. But if you give it a good tug, you can take out a lot of it and in most cases that’s enough.
2. Knit on small needle size
I’m aware that this tutorial is a bit more academic but I hope you can see how understanding the concept will help you find the proper remedies. In the previous paragraph I said that no matter how much you tighten up that first purl stitch, you will always create a bit of slack simply because the barrel of your knitting needles is in your way.
Well, if the mountain will not come to Mohammed… then you can simply pick a smaller needle size. Again, the length of that slack is defined by the diagonal between a knit and a purl stitch. And the smaller your knitting needles are, the shorter that diagonal is.
As a rule of thumb, I recommend knitting any knit-purl knitting stitch pattern on relatively small knitting needles.
3. Purl or knit through the back loop
Another viable option to create neater rib stitches is purling every first purl stitch through the back loop. Why? Well, here’s a bit more knitting theory. The swatch below shows the way the yarn has to travel between a twisted knit stitch and a purl stitch. And since the base stitch of the KTBL is twisted, the yarn only has to travel only a half-s. The distance is shorter compared to a regular knit-purl combination.
In the swatch below, I knit a regular 1×1 rib stitch for the first couple of rows, then I knit 2 rows of stockinette stitch as a divider, and then I knit a half-twisted rib stitch (R1:*k1, ptbl*; R2: ktbl, p1*). And I hope you can see how this improved the stitch definition a bit despite the super rustic sheep wool yarn.
Now, obviously, you will see a column of twisted stitches on one side. But on the other side, those twisted stitches are hidden in between the ridges – so barely noticeable.
Don’t expect this to solve all your problems. But when you combine two or three strategies (I intentionally didn’t for this swatch), the results will be much more noticeable.
4. Change yarn
But this brings me directly to my next tip: Sometimes the culprit is the yarn itself and not your technique at all. Since this is quite a wide topic and deserves its very own book (yes, you heard me!) I can only give you a couple of pointers.
A) Fuzzy yarn with high friction
The above swatch was knitted with an organic plant-dyed non-superwash regional sheep wool DK yarn. Quite lovely from a sustainable point of view but the yarn itself is very sturdy and has a lot of friction.
And this means, pulling tight after each first purl stitch consistently is very very difficult. The working yarn just doesn’t slip as smoothly across your fingers as your standard merino sock yarn. Now, this is not to say you should only use slick yarn. It’s to say, with some yarns a less than ideal stitch definition can be expected – especially if it’s a bit irregularly spun.
Often, switching to a different knitting stitch pattern or a twisted rib will be the only solution if you want it neat.
B) Yarn with a high twist/unbalanced yarn
Another problem can be yarn that has been spun in a way so it has either a lot of twist or is unbalanced (meaning it curls a lot). You may have observed this effect when knitting stockinette stitch and suddenly you don’t see rows of Vs but one continuous line with a couple of right-slanting supports on one side (see swatch above).
And this kind of effect can carry on to your ribbings as well. Some yarns have a bit of a bias or the stitches roll out away from each other and thereby opening up those knit stitch columns. As I said, this is a very complex topic but suffice to say that this is also something to keep in mind.
3. Your individual knitting technique
The last yarny issue when knitting ribbings has to do with your own knitting style. Ideally speaking, yarn should be balanced. Meaning, when you pull out a length from your skein it will rest more or less flat on your table without any curling. But then comes the knitter.
A lot of knitters wind their yarn into yarn cakes or balls. But winding something around a central axis is nothing else but adding twist to something. Now, if you unwind it in the opposite direction, the outcome will of course be a balanced thread again. But a lot of people like to do center-pulls (meaning they don’t unwind from the outside and without the yarn cake being able to move around its own axis). So the twist will carry over straight to your knitting needles.
(Important note: In that respect it doesn’t matter if you pull from the center or from the outside; the problem is the yarn cake not being able to spin around its axis.)
But it gets even more complicated than that. Depending on your knitting style (meaning continental, English, Portuguese, Eastern, etc), you will add further twist to your yarn as you knit. E.g.you will wrap the yarn around the needle counter-clockwise to create a knit stitch.
And this may either balance out the twist you created by winding & unwinding, or overtwist the yarn or untwist it. Of course, we are talking about a smaller effect but you may have observed your working yarn becoming all curled after a couple of rows and that’s precisely what I’m talking about. Or when you do a longtail cast-on and the plies come apart after 100 stitches or so.
And when these kinds of effects are worked into your fabric, your ribbing may be less regular or have a weird bias. Here and now I won’t be able to tell you what you are doing. I can only tell you that you may be doing something. Use different yarns, wind them differently (clockwise, counter-clockwise, center-pull, ball, etc), and knit swatches to see which combination works best for you.
5. Slip stitches…and fix them later
Let’s revisit the fact that the main culprit for the messy ribbings are those loose knit/purl combinations. Well, what if you could circumvent the problem? Here’s another solution that may work for you. Instead of knitting that offending loose knit stitch, you just slip it. And in the return row, you fix the dropped stitch using the little float you created.
Step 1: Slip the last knit stitch purlwise instead of knitting it in the first row (yarn held in back).
Step 2: Use the float to fix the stitch in the next row and slip it in the process to create another float (which you will fix in the next row, and so on).
Why does this work? Because that float will be much shorter than the amount of yarn you would use for a typically knit stitch. So, when you fix it later on, you will steal a bit of yarn from the adjacent stitch and thereby you will tighten up the whole fabric.
This probably isn’t a viable option for a big ribbed scarf. But it can be quite a nice option to prevent ladders when knitting ribbing in the round or when knitting very small sections (like a cuff or so).
6. Compare flat with in the round
My last little tip is more of notification and less of a true way to fix messy ribbings. Still, I want you to be aware that due to your individual knitting style and your tension, the same pattern may look better when knit in the round than flat (or vice versa).
In the above example, I used a cable spun cashmere yarn and you can see how the flat swatch looks a bit more balanced, while the swatch in the round has a tight column of knit stitches followed by a looser one. There’s a whole host of reasons for that but more to the point it means two things:
A) You may consider steeking to turn a tubular project into a flat one or mattress stitch to join a flat project in the round. And B) when you knit a flat swatch for a tubular project, you may be in for a surprise.
The reason for this discrepancy can be found somewhere in between different knit-purl tension and the fact that you create the slack one stitch removed every row, among other things. It will be very hard to pinpoint just one reason here. Still, if you know it exists, I feel it’s something you can work with.
At the very end of the day, you will have to realize that the perfect rib stitch does not exist. Or rather, that one column is a bit tighter and the other a bit looser is by design and nothing you can avoid 100%. It’s how knitting works and I feel, as long as it’s regular, it’s something you should embrace and not fight.
29 thoughts on “How to knit neater rib stitches”
Thanks. Those are great suggestions. I have used the pull tight method but didn’t realize that it is important to only pull tight on the purl right after the knit stitch.
Me too, Kristina!! I’m just beginning a new project that begins on a 2×2 rib, so will give that instruction in particular more attention.
Thank you Norman. As always, you’re very helpful.
Thank you for the very detailed explanation, Norman! I learned a lot from this article.
Thank you for this tutorial, rib knits are my favourite but loose stitches at the edges has always been an issue (annoying since I’m such a tight knitter). Really enjoying your site all round 🙂
Could you do something on correcting mistakes in P1 K1B rib? Currently every time I make a mistake (that I could normally correct) I have to unravel to the start as I can’t even figure out how to rethread the stitches back onto the needle correctly. I daren’t start my sweater til I have this nailed!
Thank you Norman. I’ve always noticed my 2×2 ribbing looked goofy, but didn’t know why. You explained the problem well, can’t wait to try your suggestions.
I find that working the purl stitch by wrapping yarn clockwise shortens that gap between knit and purl stitches. (My style of knitting both knit and purl stitches are formed by wrapping yarn anti-clockwise). On the following row it is then necessary to knit into back loop of those stitches because wrapping yarn clockwise results in a twisted stitch.
Thanks for this tutorial, Norman.I must practice the various tips you have shown, and see which suits my knitting style best.
That’s the way to approach this, Frances. Suggestion you can try and see what they do to you and your knitting style!
Merci pour ce tutoriel très intéressant Norman.
Very useful. Thank you!
thanks, its very useful
I’m a beginner knitter and these tips were so helpful! Thank you for sharing!
Thank you for all the technical explanations. I knit a lot of toques, in the round and mostly a 2 stich rib (k1,p1). I believe my work looks neat, however the right side always has a different look than the wrong side. The knit column on the wrong side maintains perfect ‘ V ‘, while the knit column on right side while even neat stitches does not definepg the ‘V’ . I would have thought the problem of the shorter loop would be apparent on both sides. Did I miss your point?
No, that is quite normal as the “untidy” knit column turns into a purl column on the other side…and it’s typically much less apparent than loose knit stitches – both due to their very look and the fact they are partially hidden in between the ribs.
In the round, you never turn around. It’s a different thing when knitting flat.
Thank you for such a clear explanation and all the helpful suggestions. I’m looking forward to trialling them all in my quest for tidier ribbing
Regarding twist in the yarn as you pull from the wound ball:
While working on a Fair Isle project, I noticed only one of the yarns twisted when pulled from the center pull ball. I cut the twisted yarn, ran it through the middle of the ball to exit the other side and, like magic, it not longer twisted. It lay just as flat as can be.
it’s not exactly magic. What’s happening here is that you might have wound the second ball counter-clockwise, and you are turning your project clockwise as you knit (or some other combination). And this may add to or balance out the twist.
Still, happy to hear that you found a solution for your project.
Love this. Will definitely try this when I get home later. I have hated how my ribbing looks and now, I know why it looks so wonky.
I am knitting the Four Score 4×4 ribbing sweater, a pattern which is written to be knit flat. I did the sleeves flat because I didn’t want to bother with refiguring the increases for knitting in the round, but figured I’d do the body circularly because I just don’t knit sweaters flat, haven’t done it that way for about 40 years! Wrong on so many counts!! The knitting doesn’t look smooth look in spite of repeated blocking and my gauge is off, although the sleeves look fabulous. I am an experienced knitter but nevertheless made this stupid mistake of thinking I could switch knitting techniques for different sections. Thank you for shedding so much light on this topic. Now I will feel better about ripping out 3 inches of circular sweater body and starting over flat, knowing that I will be on the right track. Looking on the bright side, it will be a good travel project now.
Once again, your explanation saved my knitting. I am knitting a sweater and stockinette with 5 mm needles. I size down to 3.75 mm and the knit stitches still were massive. I used your knitting through the back loop. And just tightened up more than I ever would, keeping the stitches at the ends of my needles. Everything looks great! It works! I had to frog back on this ribbing three times before I got it to work. I’m working at the bottom of my sweater because I’m going to go back and do the ribbing around the neck later and I thought this part would be a slam dunk. So far, this is been the most difficult part of knitting the sweater..
You are such a genius teacher Norman!
Thank you so much!!!
Greetings from Austria
Trying to get my head around it 😉
When you use PURL OR KNIT THROUGH THE BACK LOOP on 2×2 rib stitch, is it:
R1:*k1, k1, ptbl, p1*; R2: *k1, ktbl, p1, p1*? Following the pattern?
Love your clear instructions!
Well, that’s a bit difficult to say really and it depends a bit on where exactly you have the problem.
RS: *k2, ptbl, p1*
WS: *k1, ktbl, p2*
Can help! Again, the resulting pattern can look a little bit differently. And for some
RS: *k1, ktbl, p2*
WS: *k2, ptbl, p*
looks neater. Ttry it on a swatch
Thank you, Norman! I’ll try both to see what’s best!
Outstanding coverage. Explanation shows why no matter how you change your knitting so that purl and knit stitches are made the same &/or the angle of your needles you will/may still have this issue. I like the concept of combining techniques. Skipping the stitch and catching it in the next round/row is a great idea I had toyed with and relatively simple. The section on yarn also explains another issues I had with a super-wash merino love the yarn, hate knitting with it! I’m a spinner so I get the concepts of twist. Tugging or tightening is difficult to achieve consistently. I enjoy all of you work, however this one is particular hit it out of the park! Kudos.
Thank you for this tutorial !
After reading this I’ve tried the “pull tight before purl” method in the round, without seeing a great result, while it took me really much more time.
I should precise that I’m not a continental knitter (I don’t remember the english word for right hand knit just now) and a rather tight knitter in general.
But I also noticed at this occasion that when I knit in the round which I mostly do my reverse side is quite much neater than the front side.
I then had a look on rib parts of all my knitted items (done quickly without paying attention) and realized that it is always the case.
So I wonder if i should take the habits to knit borders inside out.
But in this case, would you advise me to cut the yarn and weave it later for a neater result at the join or is there a way to change direction whithout holes or messy things ?
Thank you in advance and thank you for your work !
Yes, depending on your individual tension, some of these methods might or might not work.
If you want to change directions, simply use any short row method (German Short rows, Wrap & Turn) to avoid a visible hole. Of course, you won’t really knit short rows, just use the technique to hide the turning point.
Thank you very much for your answer and for your work !
This is a fantastic resource! Came across it the other day while attempting to make a different project look nicer, and then was linked to it again today after I downloaded your Ribbed Hat knitting pattern! Didn’t even realize they were both by you until I followed the link 😛
Thanks for all your hard work!