Vicuña wool – Knitting with the most expensive fiber in the world

A detailed review of the precious vicuña yarn. Is it worth buying, what does it feel like knitting with, and why is it so expensive?

Are you dreaming of buying some vicuña wool? Have you heard that it is both the softest and most expensive commercially available yarn and now you are wondering what the fuss is all about? Then you came to the right place because in this article I will explore the wonders of this precious fiber together with you.

three balls of vicuna yarn stacked upon each other

First, where does it come from? Vicuña (engl. vicuna) wool is obtained by the South American camelid (Lama vicugna) with the selfsame name. These elusive and very shy animals live in the Andes at altitudes of 3,200 meters (10,500 ft) and above between Peru and northern Chile.

two vicuna sitting on the grass eating

The small mammals with a shoulder height of only 75 – 85 cm produce extremely fine wool that has been valued since the times of the Inca and before (even today, the Vicuna is the national animal of Peru). The highest quality vicuna wool has an average thickness of 12-14 microns and the highest comfort factor of all naturally obtained fibers. The comfort factor is 99 (out of 100) and one could say it’s the benchmark for all other fibers.

the natural habitat of the vicuna in peru high up in the andes
The natural habitat of the vicuna high up in the Andes in Peru

Compared to that, cashmere (15-19 microns) and Baby Alpaca (~22.5 microns) almost seem coarse – especially as the quality is less controlled/standardized and shows a much wider range of diameters (the mean variation of vicuna fiber is only 19.5%!). The staple length is considerably short (the mean length is only 30.9mm; source) making it considerably hard to spin.

The fibers are also extremely delicate and that’s why most vicuna yarn and products are sold undyed. Still, that doesn’t mean it’s easy to break. In fact, the average tensile strength varies between 40 and 64 N/ktex, which is considered “very resistant” (source).

close up shot of vicuna wool

In its natural form, it has a very creamy and smooth golden brown color reminiscent of cinnamon that I personally feel is to die for. It’s such a pleasant color that you may find in lighter and richer hues depending on the manufacturer (and possibly portion of the body it has been obtained).

a couple of different skeins of vicna wool on a wooden desk with knitting needles

Reading tip: The 10 most expensive yarn in the world

Knitting with vicuna wool

Now, this is a knitting blog and the most important portion of this article is certainly the knitting qualities of vicuna yarn. How soft is it? What about the stitch definition? And ultimately, is it worth it? Let’s take a look.

1. (Perceived) Softness and Comfort factor

I have knitted with many a rare fiber in my 30 years of knitting. One could say it’s sort of my specialty and main interest. Cashmere, angora, qiviut, yak, you name it. And it’s my honest conviction that none of these aforementioned fibers come close to vicuna wool. It’s outstandingly soft.

And unlike Cashmere, where a lot of the perceived softness is created by the famous halo (which ironically is an effect you can achieve with brushed merino wool as well), vicuna yarn has a more solid softness. It’s more of a softness you come to appreciate after wearing it for an extended time than on the first touch (even though it is certainly incredibly soft to the first touch as well).

three skeins of vicuna yarn and knitting tools in the foregruond

The knitting yarn I had the pleasure of touching and using also was very light-weight – what most people would call lace yarn. As a result, the knitting I produced was outstandingly light.

A couple of months ago, I read a report about Dhaka muslin and how Marie Antoinette favored it. The fabric was so thin, that a whole gown was said to fit through a ring. An attribution I thought sounded a bit too much like a fairy tale at that time. But now, having knit with vicuna, that is actually exactly how the knitted fabric I produced feels like.

It’s very difficult to pinpoint but it almost feels like what I produced with vicuna yarn is weightlessly soft. Sure, the fine gauge (1.75mm needles) certainly helped. But I frequently knit with such small needles (and most commercial knitting machines use similar-sized hooks) and that fabric doesn’t even remotely feel like this.

So, I would definitely say that the yarns I sampled so far delivered on their promise of luxurious softness.

2. Knitting Qualities

someone knitting with vicuna wool

I also want to talk about the knitting qualities as this is certainly equally as interesting for most of my readers. Sure enough, feeling this ultra-soft thread gliding effortlessly across my fingers – almost without noticing – and touching the working progress is pure joy. I would be lying if I said anything to the contrary.

At the same time, the thread is dangerously thin. Not that it would break at any time (on a side note: a problem you might experience with lace cashmere yarn). No. Still, because it is so thin and soft, it’s quite difficult to handle. A lot of (my) knitting techniques factor in the resistance the yarn has to offer, its weight, its friction, etc. And that is almost entirely missing with vicuna yarn. There is no resistance. You barely notice it at all. As a result, it’s quite difficult to knit with.

Of course, there’s the thought accompanying your knitting that every stitch probably costs you 5 cents or so. And there’s no denying that might be a factor why I knit so carefully as well. But the yarn itself is a major reason as well. And talking about price: Knitting a swatch to get gauge felt like the most glorious waste of money and it took some major convincing to do so (but of course, with such an expensive yarn, swatching is even more important).

a swatch in vicuna yarn on the blocking mats

And here’s one more peculiar thing I noticed: Vicuna are shy “flight animals” and their coat perfectly blends with their surroundings in the Peruvian Andes. But I do have to say that the effect is similar on your needles and I personally had a hard time seeing the stitches. Not only because they were so small, but because this brownish greyish tone offers little contrast against your fingers.

On top of that, the yarn I used for my sample knit (by Pascuali) was a 4-ply woven spun thread. And that makes it very “splitty” – despite using somewhat blunt Knitter’s Pride Karbonz dpns (and certainly not my HiyaHiyas). Even fixing a mistake, normally a simple matter of using a crochet hook, became an act that required tremendous concentration.

Now, certainly, I have not sampled every vicuna yarn on this planet and neither do I have the money for that. But then again, there are not a lot of companies selling this precious fiber in a hand-knitting quality, so I feel my observation is very valid nonetheless.

3. Is buying vicuna yarn worth it?

The elephant in the room is, of course, whether buying vicuna yarn is worth it. And that is indeed a very difficult question. Yes, it’s outstandingly soft and the color is just lovely. At the same time, it’s not 10 times as soft as cashmere or baby yak, yet it has 10 times the price tag.

The knitting difficulties I faced, and mind you, I call myself an experienced knitter, are certainly nothing you should discount either. Nothing an experienced knitter, like myself, cannot handle but still something worth noting.

gloves knitted using vicuna yarn

At the end of the day, I would say it is a novelty thing and not so much of a holy grail. I enjoyed having knitted with it so far, but it’s nothing that has me excited to save up money for the next 10 years until I can buy sweater quantities of vicuna yarn. It is a loooot of money for a little bit of yarn. Still, for a knitter who has everything, it’s certainly a once-in-a-lifetime experience. Even just touching it is.

How much does vicuna wool cost?

vicuna yarn and gold coins comparrison shot

Vicuna is the most expensive commercially available fiber in the world. For a long time, it was even more expensive than gold (a fact that changed due to the dramatic rise of the gold price in the past 2 decades and the increased production of vicuna wool). There are only a very selected few producers who sell vicuna yarn to retail customers.

Pascuali, AR Königstein (both based in Germany), and Windy Valley Muskox are currently the only companies I know of that sell vicuna yarn to crafters. A one-ounce skein of vicuna yarn currently costs between 250 and 300 US dollars (as of January 2022).

skeins of paco vicuna wool side by side in two cols
Four skeins of paco vicuna yarn in two different hues

In recent years, a cross-breed between alpaca and vicuna, the so-called paco vicuna, has been introduced. A selected few farms in Peru and the U.S. hold these animals and some of them sell their fibers. Paco Vicuna wool is almost as soft and delicate. Currently, prices for a one-ounce skein of the highest quality paco vicuna wool range between 150 and 200 US dollars.

two balls of guanaco wool side by side
Two guanaco yarn cakes

And then, of course, there is also guanaco yarn. Guanaco and vicuna are closely related and the Guanaco produces a similar yarn. As they live typically in lower altitudes, the yarn is a tiny bit less soft. It is even harder to source as, at least so far, the yarn is not really harvested in a large-scale commercial way.

Why is vicuna wool so expensive?

vicuna yarn and two gold coins side by side

When you look at the price of vicuna yarn – if you can find it for sale at all – then the average knitter will get a shock. As I just said, it often sells for 250 – 300 USD per ounce. For the same price, you’d get sweater quantities of the finest hand-dyed merino yarn. So why is vicuna wool so expensive?

By the 1960s, the population of vicuna was reduced to a mere 6,000 animals (mainly due to poaching) and thus it was declared an endangered animal. Due to the immense conservative efforts, the population has increased in the subsequent decades to above 350,000 across the altiplano (source). Still, the animals remain elusive.

three adult vicuna grazing on a meadow

The fact that each vicuna only produces about 500 grams of wool per year and wool can only be obtained from the wild and free-ranging animals after massive large-scale hearding activities (called chaccu), together with its scarcity, is a large factor in determining the astronomical price. In 2017, only around 9.6 tons of vicuna wool were produced in Peru according to SERFOR.

On top of that, producing vicuna wool is very labor-intensive. The natural fiber is pre-dehaired manually to maintain the quality of the precious fiber. A worker requires one month of working eight hours a day (30g per day) to dehair 1 kilogram of vicuna fiber (source).

It has to be noted, however, that the simple worker in Peru is only a small part of the total value chain and the biggest chunk goes to the yarn processors in Italy which create the final luxury goods, especially Loro Piana. A single scarf (200 x 70 cm) will set you back by 3,500 to 4,200 Euro (as of January 2022) if you buy it from this Italian luxury manufacturer.

Vicuna FAQ

Here at the end, I wanted to answer a couple of frequently asked questions. But feel free to comment below if there’s something else you would like to know.

Where does vicuna wool come from?

Most of the commercially available vicuna wool comes from Peru, with much smaller quantities from Argentina and Chile. In recent years, animals have also been introduced to Ecuador. Most of the yarn, however, is being processed in Italy, where luxury manufacturers like Loro Piana specialize in the rare fiber.

Is vicuna wool always brown?

different kind of vicuna wool on a wooden desk

By general acceptance, vicuna wool is deemed to be too delicate for any harsh dyeing (which typically involves pretreatment with acids) and is thus sold in its natural cinnamon-brown state. Loro Piana also offers vicuna products for sale in black, grey, dark brown, and blue tones. I have not seen the raw yarn being sold in any other colors but brown (and only once in black).

Paco vicuna yarn is, however, available in a lighter hue as well.

Vicuna vs alpaca wool

Vicuna are said to be the ancestors of the now-domesticated alpaca. So, the fibers share a lot of the characteristics. At the same time, alpaca yarn has typically a much longer staple length, is much thicker (up to 18-30 microns on average), and comes in many different natural hues.

When compared to a good royal/baby alpaca yarn, one will definitely notice a difference, but it’s not like vicuna wool was twice as soft – maybe 20-30% softer. Baby camel yarn will be very similar to it as well and could be a “budget” option for someone who likes the natural brown tone and softness but cannot afford the astronomical price tag of the so-called “gold of the Andes”.

Anyway, this was my article on vicuna wool. Comment below in case you still have any questions or feedback.

20 thoughts on “Vicuña wool – Knitting with the most expensive fiber in the world”

  1. Thank you for this very informative article. I had no idea there is fiber this wonderful and expensive. Some day I hope to be able to locate it and touch it. At this time, I can’t afford to purchase enough for a scarf. Regardless, I do hope these beautiful animals thrive.

    Reply
    • Let me copy & paste this from Wikipedia: “Llewelyn Sherman Adams (January 8, 1899 – October 27, 1986) was an American businessman and politician, best known as White House Chief of Staff for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the culmination of an 18-year political career that also included a stint as the 67th governor of New Hampshire. He lost his White House position in a scandal when he accepted an expensive vicuña coat.” We have to remember that he had “impressed Eisenhower with his hard work, mastery of detail, and skill in political maneuvering and all requests for access to Eisenhower had to go through his Office as Chief of Staff,” which had been organized copying the military practices the President felt comfortable with. Vertical and direct…!!! He (Sherman) had also organized his life this way and, interestingly, was the first person in this position to hold the explicit title of “Chief of Staff,” and the joke doing the rounds at that time was: “Two Democrats were talking and one said “Wouldn’t it be terrible if Eisenhower died and Nixon became President?” The other one replied “Wouldn’t it be terrible if Sherman Adams died and Eisenhower became President!” BUT Sherman could not say NO to a vicuña coat so, I think that it is important to point out that my little Peruvian vicuña, shy, soft and of modest fluff played an important part in American politics at one time… Regardless, IF I had the resources one day, I would get enough of this yarn to knit a short, very narrow scarf as a gift to myself and just to have a moment’s bliss and raptured satisfaction of feeling that amazing softness through my fingers while knitting… (I would take that scarf with me, of course, when I go…!) In the meantime I will have to accept being stuck to work my chop sticks with Chinese Cashmere with the illusion that it has been, perhaps, smuggled there from Nepal… Who knows…? You don’t know and I, for sure, and most certainly, don’t either BUT hope springs eternal…!!! Beatriz

      Reply
  2. This is so interesting, Norman! Thanks, for your detailed description of Vicuña yarn! I had not even heard of it, despite having been an avid knitter for about 10 years now. Too bad it’s not more affordable, but it’s understandable why it’s so expensive, . . . and valuable.

    Reply
  3. Wow! I never knew there was such a thing. The most expensive yarn I ever purchased was about $50 for 100g of merino wool/mulberry silk blend. The reason it was so expensive is because I bought it from the UK to ship to the US with shipping and exchange rate fees. Happy birthday Norman! You deserve such a luxury for your BIG day.

    Reply
    • I thought the story of the yarn was very interesting. I am also glad to know of the comparisons. No I would not buy the vicuna yarn because of the price. I work for my money.🙂

      Reply
  4. I enjoyed it all: the video, the article, and the beautiful photos. Good for you to indulge yourself! You made me dream of a scarf in this yarn and that color. Will I ever be able to? Probably not, but it sure is fun to think about it! :))

    Reply
  5. Excellent article. Windy Valley Muskox is currently selling red, blue, and green (in addition to brown). However, after reading your article, I’ve decided I can live without the experience of knitting with this yarn. Thank you for your informative article.

    Reply
  6. Norman…thank you for this very interesting article on the best and finest and most expensive yarn. I am a passionate knitter, a very fussy and particular one too. I knit in a lot of Alpaca…and one most recently contained Mink….the price makes me knot only for myself…if I made an error whilst knitting for another…I would cringe if I had to cover up an error.
    I have knitted with a yarn that had a small percentage of Camel, also soft and luxurious to the touch.
    Thankyou again
    Heather in Thurgoona NSW Australia

    Reply
  7. Norman, I, too, appreciate the detail and depth you’ve provided on this yarn. I have two questions. First, have you knitted any silk blends of vicuna or paco vicuna yarns? Second, if I were to weave with these yarns as the weft, would a silk blend or just silk be a good warp? It sounds like the pure fiber would not be a good warp yarn. Thanks, Jenny

    Reply
    • I have not used any vicuna blends, sorry.
      As for the proper warp yarn. I can’t quite help you but the incas have been weaving with alpaca for centuries and maybe use a very soft baby alpaca yarn for the warps or try to do some research into traditional South American weaving.

      Reply
  8. Thank you for your very informative article. Excellent explanations as to both What it is as well as Why it is so costly as well as where it comes from and how it is made. You have provided great information in a very easily understandable article and your photos are beautiful as well as informative. Once again thank you.
    Susan

    Reply
  9. Thank you so much for your review. I have always wondered if it was worth the price. Looks like I will stick to Alpaca and cashmere

    Reply
  10. Thanks for the article. Story: Back in the 1960’s I was working on the Altiplano of Bolivia. There I was introduced to the Vicuna which was considered an endangered species. Pelts could only be harvested from dead animals and wool was gathered by the cholas that lived in the area but they had to gather it from what the animals lost. The animals were not to be disturbed and no one in that time period knew how to breed them. Even to the scientist studying them. They were truly a mystery.

    I had seen some scarfs in the marketplace but they were so expensive compared to the other wools like alpaca. At the time I was living on a budget of about $100/ month of which I saved out about $40 each month for souvenirs. Some how I saved enough money to buy a scarf and I kept it as one of my favorite souvenirs. Decades later in another part of the world (Asia) I kept it in my sweater drawer and occasionally one of my teenage kids would wear it to school.

    Again time pasted and in the early 2000’s I was reading the Wall Street Journal about this time of the year (before Christmas). An article in the WJ was on the ultimate gifts to give. One was a Vicuna scarf which they said at the time was about $20 K. I was blown over. I immediately panicked and asked my wife where the scarf was…did the kids have it or was it lost? I quickly looked through my sweater collection and to my relief I found it hidden below some sweaters.

    I am happy to know that the Vicuna situation has improved and they no know how to breed them. The wool is truly a treasure. In my retirement years I work with wools and I use that scarf to teach how soft a wool can be.

    Reply
  11. Hello Norman,
    I have been wanting to buy the beautiful vicuna yarn.
    Can you steer me to the most honest reasonable priced source for purchase?
    Should I be buying direct from Nepal?
    Thank you for your Informative blog.

    Reply
  12. Dear Norman,
    Very helpful article. I happen to have held onto a single skein of vicuna and struggle to figure out what I dare knit. Do you think its suitable for a shawl or would I tear my hair out i frustration? Is a cowl better? Wondering your advice…..

    Reply
  13. Wondering if this has the same felting qualities as alpaca, as in, it practically felts if one just sneezes on it. Felted alpaca is delightful but distressing, since I didn’t take the feltability into account when I made the hat.

    Reply

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